Cancer: Riddle for mankind
Cancers are the biggest catastrophes which mankind is facing and getting best possible treatment is one hurdle in itself. Most of the cases fall prey to delay in detection and diagnosis. In recent past India has seen rapid growth in the cases of cancer as well as Head and neck cancer which is most common of all the types. People who have chewing habits of pan masala, gutka and other agents are responsible for causing it.
Head/Neck Cancer and Endoscopy
Cancers that are known collectively as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck (for example, inside the mouth, the nose, and the throat). These squamous cell cancers are often referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Head and neck cancers can also begin in the salivary glands, but salivary gland cancers are relatively uncommon. Salivary glands contain many different types of cells that can become cancerous, so there are many different types of salivary gland cancer. For the need of surgery; Specialists opt for Endoscopic Surgery as it comes with the advantage of same approach with much decreased cost.
In the past, most surgery for head and neck was performed through transfacial, transmandibular incisions, yet many patients still required extensive adjuvant therapy post-operatively so Endoscopic surgery has been adopted in many areas of surgery to reduce patient morbidity during surgical resection.
To achieve this, endoscopic instrumentation coupled with improved imaging and localisation techniques have been developed, to enable adequate resection of tumours with minimum damage to surrounding tissues. Either with a carbon dioxide laser microsurgery (trans-oral) or robotic surgery (trans-oral robotic surgery [TORS]), surgeons gain access through the mouth via minimally invasive technique and thus have improved visualization of the tumors of the head/neck, without disfiguring incisions. This transoral route of access minimizes long-term speech and swallowing dysfunction. Head and neck surgery, skull-base tumour resection and thyroidectomy, are the cancer areas where application of minimally invasive endoscopic techniques has been widely applied.
Compared with classic open head and neck surgery, Endoscopic Head and neck surgery is performed without external incisions and obviates the need for mandibulotomy or transmandibular access.
Transoral endoscopic head and neck surgery is surgery from the inside out because incisions begin from the mucosal (inner) surface and extend outward, eliminating any skin incisions. Using a microscope and a carbon dioxide laser a comprehensive oncologic resection of the primary tumor is performed through the mouth.